Associação Gaita-de-Foles A.P.E.D.G.F. APEDGF
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Condições de Inscrição:
Prazo limite: 5 Março 2004
Sócios do CEAS: 12,50 €
Outros: 25 € (inclui Etnográfica VIII (2) na qual serão publicadas as actas do colóquio)

As inscrições poderão ser feitas no CEAS (Centro de Estudos de Antropologia Social), de 3ª a 5ª feira, entre as 15.30h e as 20.00, em numerário ou cheque, ou por correio através de cheque traçado e passado à ordem de CEAS para a seguinte morada: CEAS, Av. das Forças Armadas, Ed. ISCTE (Cacifo 237), 1600-083 Lisboa.

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The Politics of Folk Culture
Reflections from the Lusophone World
Lisboa, ISCTE (Auditório Afonso de Barros) 
12 a 13 Março de 2004


Bombos do Fundão

Terá lugar nos próximos dias 12 e 13 de Março de 2004, no ISCTE, (Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa), Auditório Afonso de Barros, o Colóquio Internacional "The Politics of Folk Culture - Reflections from the Lusophone World" (As Políticas da Cultura Popular - Reflexões do Mundo Lusófono). Uma reflexão atenta sobre representações, práticas e identidades culturais, muito oportuna para todos aqueles que vivem no circuito da música "tradicional" e da etnomusicologia, mas não só. Os temas são muito diversos e de grande interesse: Representações sobre práticas e identidades locais; Invenção da Tradição; Ícones Rurais do Noroeste Peninsular; Etnicidade, Globalização e Cultura; A "Portugalidade" na Diáspora, etc. Este colóquio é organizado pelo Centro de Estudos de Antropologia Social e da responsabilidade científica de João Leal e Andrea Klimt. Contará com a presença de Paulo Raposo (CEAS/ISCTE), João Vasconcelos (ICS-UL), António Medeiros (ISCTE), João Leal (CEAS e FCSH-UNL), Margaret Sarkissian (Smith College), Timothy Sieber (UMass Boston), Kimberly Holton (Rutgers University Newark) e Andrea Klimt (UMass Dartmouth).

A participação no Colóquio está sujeita a inscrição - para mais informações contactar o secretariado do CEAS (Centro de Estudos de Antropologia Social) através do e-mail [email protected] ou do telefone 21 790 39 17.


Programa e Informações (em Inglês):


Conference Presentation:
Folk culture, rural traditions, and life-ways of 19th century peasants often provide the symbolic repertoire through which contemporary claims of connection and continuity are made visible and credible. The aim of this conference is to explore deployments of “folk culture” within the very different histories of identity construction and relations of power that characterize the Lusophone world. The papers all examine identities that intersect, in one way or another, with arguments about “being Portuguese” and that draw extensively on images of Portuguese folk traditions. Together they offer insight into the variety of ways “Portuguese tradition” is configured, used, and debated within very differently situated efforts to assert regional, ethnic, national or diasporic identities. The commonality of historical intersections with Portugal as well as the variability of engagement with that history will, we hope, provoke useful debate on how “folk culture” and “authentic tradition” figure into the complex politics of identity construction. 
The multiple and historically intertwined relationships that constitute the Lusophone world – including those within Portugal, that span the recent as well as historically distant diaspora, and connect one-time colonies and colonizers – provide an ideal arena within which to explore the variable ways in which images of “tradition” are used to assert collective identities. Within Portugal itself, socio-cultural transformations, together with dramatic political change, the country’s incorporation into the European Union, and the recent influx of immigrants from Africa, Asia and Brazil have introduced new dynamics into debates over local, regional and national identity. The exact nature and place of “folk culture” within identity narratives at “home” is a matter of some contention. In diasporic and post-colonial contexts, folk culture and rural traditions also play key roles in displays of collective identity. But questions about what counts as “authentic,” who counts as the “folk,” or the political significance of claiming “Portugueseness” yield complex and varied answers that range from asserting a purported cultural continuity with Portugal over at times immense expanses of time and space to actively cutting out references to Portuguese culture out of local memory. Within supranational frameworks such as the European Union, or in delocalized interactions such as the world music industry, references to folk culture play central roles in the production of identities as well. The tension here is between images rooted in a specific time and place and structures and dynamics that are decidedly not local. Regardless of historical or geographic context, all of the identity narratives that draw on representations of folk culture coexist – in harmony or in conflict – with other modes and practices of cultural self-representation. A central question running through all the case studies is thus how the symbolic repertoire of “tradition” articulates with other competing sets of images. In strategically juxtaposing these contexts and cases, the conference aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the particularities of these situated debates as well as to broader theoretical reflections on the politics of cultural self-representation and processes of identity formation.

Organization:
Centro de Estudos de Antropologia Social/ISCTE - PORTUGAL
Scientific Coordination:
Andrea Klimt, Umass Dartmouth (USA)
[email protected]

João Leal, Centro de Estudos de Antropologia Social/ISCTE (Portugal)
[email protected]

Sponsors:
UMass Dartmouth * ISCTE * Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian * Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento * Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia * Delta Cafés

Contacts:
Centro de Estudos de Antropologia Social, Av. Forças Armadas, Ed. ISCTE
1600-083 Lisboa PORTUGAL
Tel: 217903917, Fax:217903940, E-mail: [email protected], Url: www.ceas.iscte.pt


The Politics of Folk Culture
Reflections from the Lusophone World
Lisbon, ISCTE (Aud. Afonso de Barros) 
12-13 March 2004


12th March FRIDAY
10.30h - Opening

PANEL 1 - REPRESENTATIONS OF CULTURAL SELVES AT "HOME"
Discussant: Nélia Dias

11.00h - Paulo Raposo
Masks, Performance and Tradition: Reestructuring Local Identities

11.30h - João Vasconcelos 
The Tradition of Inventio and the Invention of Tradition: Custom and Costume at a Marian Shrine in Northwestern Portugal since the 1950s

12.00h - Coffee-break

12.30h - António Medeiros 
Queries on the Destiny of Rural Icons in the Iberian NW

13.00h - Lunch

PANEL 2 - ETHNICITY, GLOBALIZATION & CULTURE: AMBIGUOUS IDENTITIES
Discussant: Miguel Vale de Almeida

15.30h - João Leal
We Are Azorean: Discourses and Practices of Folk Culture in Santa Catarina (Southern Brazil)

16.00h - Margaret Sarkissian
Being Portuguese in Malacca

16.30h - Timothy Sieber 
Ambiguities of World Music in the Portuguese & Lusophone Diaspora

13th March SATURDAY

PANEL 3 ASSERTING “PORTUGUESENESS” WITHIN THE RECENT DIASPORA
Discussant: Antónia Pedroso de Lima

10.30h - Kimberly Holton
Pride, Prejudice and Politics: Revivalist Folklore Performance in Portuguese Newark

11.00h - Andrea Klimt
Performing Portugueseness in Germany

11.30h - Coffee-break

12.00h - FINAL DISCUSSION
Regina Bendix
João de Pina Cabral



Paulo Raposo
Centro de Estudos de Antropologia Social/ISCTE (Portugal)
[email protected]

Masks, Performance and Tradition: Reestructuring Local Identities

In Northeast Portugal, winter mask performances associated with cyclic folk festivals were an important cultural tradition in the recent past and have attracted the attention of a large number of scholars. During Carnival, a particular kind of mask performance – Caretos – made a quite astounding appearance in Podence, a rural parish of Trás-os-Montes. In the context of the transformations that have occurred in Portugal in the last decades, the semantic fields of these cultural performances, now rescued from their announced decline, have become greatly enlarged. They are now strongly linked to contemporary historical and social realities, characterized by multiple and contested interpretations, which often provide the public stage for the affirmation and negotiation of local identities in post-rural Portugal. The expanded audiences and contexts of performance created by the impact of globalization have multiplied the range of meanings inscribed in these folk events. The arrival of tourists, the presence of the media, the pressures of regional political struggle, and the active involvement of the urban artistic and intellectual elites with folk culture, have incorporated these “local traditions” into a wider web of national and global cultural and political interests. Drawing on the particularities of Podence’s Caretos, my objective in this paper is to discuss the transformed cultural landscapes that emerge from these post-modern entanglements and transformations within the realm of folk culture. 


João Vasconcelos
Instituto de Ciências Sociais – UL (Portugal)
[email protected]

The Tradition of Inventio and the Invention of Tradition: 

Custom and Costume at a Marian Shrine in Northwestern Portugal since the 1950s
On the top of Serra de Arga there is a pilgrimage site devoted to Senhora do Minho (Our Lady of Minho). The image of Mary displayed at the shrine portrays her dressed in the flamboyant lady farmer set of clothes called traje à lavradeira, which came to be the stereotyped regional costume of Alto Minho about one hundred years ago. It was during the 1950s that this statue was made, the corresponding invocation of Mary invented, the first temple erected on the top of the mountain, and the summer pilgrimages began. In the 1980s the shrine became one of the two pilgrimage centres more actively promoted by the diocese of Viana do Castelo. The diocese was created in 1977 and its limits overlap those of the Alto Minho region. 
In my paper I intend to give a short account of the history of this cult, focusing on two issues. First, I will describe how the cult has been made of materials, practices and ideas brought by social agents moved by disparate concerns and expectations (such as regional folklorists, parish priests, diocesan clergy and the inhabitants of the surrounding neighbourhoods), and also how disparate interests persist under the veil of communitas. Secondly I will discuss the interplay we can observe between two different kinds of “tradition”, one consisting in the re-enactment of old ways of doing and old ways of telling (an instance of this being the legend about the discovery or inventio of the image of Our Lady by two local sheepherders that circulates nowadays), the other consisting in calling up images of a pristine past for the purpose of establishing and nurturing collective identities (as it happens with the fusion of the folkloric icon of the lavradeira with the image of the Virgin Mary).


António Medeiros
Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (Portugal)
[email protected]

Queries on the Destiny of Rural Icons in the Iberian NW

In Galicia (NW Spain), until 1936, regionalism and nationalism evolved as a minority endeavor, restricted in its immediate social consequences. However, in the aftermath of the fall of Franco’s regime, its cultural achievements eventually proved to be quite influential. Today, in Spain, several national cultures flourish under the 1978 Constitution, which provided for autonomic self-government in the so-called Comunidades Autonómicas. In the last two decades the Galician autonomic government has been committed to the production of a national Galician culture largely based on folkloristic icons and on the display of rural costumes and traditions. While pressing for larger and more radical political achievements, the BNG – a leftist nationalistic movement – has criticized the official approach to national construction as “folkloristic trash”. Folklore has thus become a major issue on the Galician contemporary cultural and political scene.
In Portugal, where nation and state have coincided for centuries, things have been quite different. In each one of the Portuguese provinces recognized by the State, no regionalist discourse evolved in consequential ways. However, today, in various small towns of NW Portugal, middle class elites from diverse political backgrounds have adopted icons of provincial rural motives as legitimate representations of local culture, adopting and recycling symbols which were mainly stylized during Salazar’s Estado Novo. In my paper, I propose to discuss the reasons underlying the differences on the political uses of folk culture in each side of the NW Spanish-Portuguese border. I will use some examples drawn from my fieldwork in Minho (NW Portugal) and Galicia, in order to emphasize State-driven influences in the design of provincial cultures and I will also address some specific problems linked to the analysis of nationalistic discourses and practices.


João Leal
Universidade Nova de Lisboa and Centro de Estudos de Antropologia Social/ISCTE (Portugal)
[email protected]

We Are Azorean. Discourses and Practices of Folk Culture in Santa Catarina (Southern Brazil)

One of major aspects of the contemporary cultural and political scene of the state of Santa Catarina (Southern Brazil) has been the development of the so called Azoreanist movement, aimed at the rediscovery and celebration of the mid eighteenth century Azorean roots of the island of Santa Catarina and other coastal areas of the state. Dating back to the 1940s, the Azoreanist movement was, for several decades, an elite endeavor, until its transformation, in the 1990s, into a very influential movement with hundreds of activists and wide popular support. This paper analyzes the prominent role played by folk culture in the activities and claims of the movement. From an initial emphasis on the ethnogenealogical demonstration of the links connecting the different folk traditions of the coastal areas of Santa Catarina to Azorean folk culture, mainly based on folkloristic research, the Azoreanist movement has evolved to a more autochthonous understanding of the folk culture of the coastal areas of Santa Catarina, based on post-modern forms of celebration and commodification of roots and tradition. Analysis focuses on the contemporary links between identity, traditional culture and tourism, and, in general, the connections between folk culture and the market.


Margaret Sarkissian
Smith College (USA)
[email protected]

Being Portuguese in Malacca

The very name “Malacca” still conjures up romanticized images of the 16th-century spice trade and the seaborne glories of Portugal’s past: a bustling emporium in which Tomé Pires reported that 84 languages could be heard spoken; swashbuckling Portuguese seafarers led by Afonso de Albuquerque; beautiful local maidens who married fidalgos and created a new breed of Portuguese Asians; A Famosa, the fortress that guarded the Straits of Malacca; and St. Francis Xavier, the missionary who brought Catholicism to the region. Such images have facilitated Malacca’s transformation from “the Sleepy Hollow” (its nickname during the British colonial period) into one of the centerpieces of Malaysia’s burgeoning tourist industry. Now called “Malaysia’s Historic City,” Malacca trades upon its heritage. An important part of this package is the Portuguese Settlement, a village of 120 houses with about a thousand residents located 3 km from the town center. The only Portuguese enclave in Malaysia, this village is, on the one hand, a historical monument in which the descendants of those seafarers are depicted as maintaining the ancient customs and traditions of their ancestors, and on the other, a housing estate in which relatively low-income residents struggle to retain their way of life in the face of development and encroaching trans-global culture. In this paper, I will explore some of the ways in which residents of Malacca’s Portuguese Settlement identify themselves. Focusing on the expressive arts (primarily music, dance, and dress) and on other markers (such as religion, language, and food), I will argue that instead of developing cultural continuity with Portugal, residents have pragmatically used their difference in order to claim a place within the multicultural Malaysian family. Historical images compete with local imaginings of Portugal to produce a “tradition” that, while appearing to be superficially Portuguese, is covertly subverted into a cultural form that is becoming increasingly Malaysian-Portuguese.


Timothy Sieber
UMass Boston (USA)
[email protected]

Ambiguities of World Music in the Portuguese & Lusophone Diaspora

The fractures and contradictions in the post-colonial lusophone world, encompassing the former metropole itself, mean that there can be no simple categorization of Portuguese or wider lusophone music within the emerging sphere of “world music.” This marketing category typically marks music considered exotic and culturally other, contains and hierarchizes difference, and seldom includes most transnational musical hybridizations. We will explore within Portuguese inspired popular musical forms what counts and does not count as “world music,” for whom, and why, in order to understand the emerging intersections of power, culture and tradition in the today’s lusophone world. Portugal’s historically ambiguous standing as both core and periphery produce some paradoxical disjunctions in the way that music and tradition are understood and categorized in different geo-cultural locations, within and between countries in the wider Portuguese diaspora. Quite mainstream contemporary Fado, now arguably Portugal’s most elegant and modern popular musical genre inside Portugal and in projections toward Europe, for example, is categorized in North America as an exotic type of world music by the public in general, even as it is enjoyed as a modernizing ethnic music by the large luso-emigrant communities there – all involving very different constructions of “tradition” that can be operating within or across music halls or concert audiences, depending on the cultural location and identity of the listener. Inside post-colonial and Europeanizing Portugal, artistic promoters and critics increasingly assign musics from the former, especially African, colonies into a new world, lusophone music category. Other Portuguese inspired musical forms, especially from the former colonies, circulate intensely in global transnational networks among luso-African diasporas, but never emerge on the “world music” stage. For example, Cape Verdean-American DJ Baby-T’s album, “100% Afro Cap Love,” that mixes Portuguese, Crioulo, French and English, is sold on the streets in Maputo, Luanda, Praia, Lisbon, Amsterdam, and even in Boston’s Cape Verdean neighborhood, Dorchester’s Upham’s Corner. Strangely, this stunning transnational framework of distribution and listenership seems almost wholly lusophone, but does not count as “world music,” since it is a circuit of hybridization and dissemination which takes place outside the view or control of white European or North American musical markets, critics, or elite consumers. Through cases such as these, drawn from Portugal, Africa, and North America, we examine how issues of power, identity, and tradition connect in today’s complex lusophone musical world.


Kimberly Holton
Rutgers University Newark (USA)
[email protected]

Pride, Prejudice and Politics: Revivalist Folklore Performance in Portuguese Newark

Newark, New Jersey boasts a thriving multicultural arts scene. In countless state-sponsored websites, tourist brochures, documentary films and television programs, Newark celebrates ethnic diversity as a defining feature of its image and an important motor behind the urban “renaissance,” reportedly underway. Some marketing narratives portray multiculturalism as the salve for Newark’s historic wounds—the 1965 race riots, decades of crime and poverty, and endemic political corruption. Newark’s 50,000 Portuguese immigrants represent highly visible protagonists in this drama of multicultural harmony and urban renewal.
Fado, folklore performance, Fátima pilgrimages and the Portugal Day parade represent the primary manifestations of Portuguese expressive culture in Newark. Revivalist folklore performance, the subject of this paper, occupies the energies of well over four hundred performers throughout New Jersey as well as countless aficionados and audience members. Folklore performance folds seamlessly into Newark’s public relations spin on its cultural renaissance, a colorful testament to the fact that diverse populations can thrive in the city and maintain their traditions without incident or injury. For Luso-Americans, performing folklore is a way to strengthen ties to Portugal, while integrating into Newark’s arts scene. It is a vehicle for the enculturation of second generation children of immigrants, as well as a political calling card announcing the Portuguese “arrival” into state, if not national politics. 


Andrea Klimt
UMass Dartmouth (USA)
[email protected]

Authenticating Portugueseness in Germany

Over the past four decades, the Portuguese in Germany have developed an actively transnational way of life that spans Portuguese as well as German national spaces. Since their initial arrival as "guest workers" in the mid-1960s, the Portuguese have established a stable collective presence within German urban centers. However, connection with Portugal, instead of fading over time, continues to be an integral part of their lives and aspirations for the future. Regardless of the number of years "abroad," the majority of migrants and their descendents in Germany maintain a goal of eventual return to Portugal, reject the notion of exclusive settlement in Germany and the acquisition of German citizenship, and participate in multi-sited actively transnational families and communities. Overarching changes, such as the openness of inter-European borders and increasing salience of a European identity, more affordable and faster modes of transportation, and dramatic developments in communication technology, have facilitated the emergence of even more frequent and intense transnational interaction. Debates about how to publicly represent "Portugueseness" in Germany thus invoke multiple complexly interconnected arenas. The Portuguese in Germany must simultaneously contend with German arguments about "multiculturalism" and assumptions about the nature of minority culture; shifting debates in Portugal about what constitutes the essence of "Portugueseness"; and efforts within the European Union to define and validate the cultural distinctiveness of member nations. Drawing on public self-representations of the Portuguese in Hamburg, this paper explores the politics of using "folk culture" to assert "authentic Portugueseness" within what is a very local, as well as complexly transnational negotiation over power and belonging.


 


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